SOLEMNITY OF THE IMMACULATE CONCEPTION

Readings:
Genesis 3:9-15, 20
Psalm 98:1-4
Ephesians 1:3-6, 11-12
Luke 1:26-38

All Scripture passages are from the New American Bible unless designated NJB (New Jerusalem Bible), IBHE (Interlinear Bible Hebrew-English), IBGE (Interlinear Bible Greek-English), or LXX (Greek Septuagint Old Testament translation).  CCC designates a citation from the Catechism of the Catholic Church. The word LORD or GOD rendered in all capital letters is, in the Hebrew text, God's Divine Name YHWH (Yahweh).

The Theme of the Solemnity of the Immaculate Conception Readings: The Virgin Mary's Faith and Love that Never knew Sin
The Solemnity of the Immaculate Conception is a holyday of obligation for faithful Catholics (CCC 2177).  On December 8th 1854, Pope Pius IX solemnly defined as a dogma of Catholic faith Mary's Immaculate Conception in the womb of her own mother, St. Anne.  The precise words of the definition found in the apostolic constitution Ineffabilis Deus are these:  "We declare, pronounce and define that the doctrine which holds that the most Blessed Virgin Mary, in the first instant of her conception, by a singular grace and privilege granted by almighty God in view of the merits of Jesus Christ, the Savior of the human race, was preserved free from all stain of original sin, is a doctrine revealed by God and therefore to be believed firmly and constantly by all the faithful."

Several important truths are taught in this definition:

The main reason for Mary's unique privilege of the Immaculate Conception given in Pius IX's apostolic constitution is that she was predestined by the Divine Persons of the Trinity to be the Theotokos (Greek = God-Bearer), or Mother of the Word incarnate that is made flesh.  Because of His extreme holiness it was necessary that He became united with a human nature in the womb of a woman who was never infected by even the slightest sin. She was not infected by original sin (which would have made her a part of the human race's corporate alienation from God), nor personal sin, nor actual sin—even through an act of a venial sin (which would have impeded her love of God and neighbor).  In 1858 when Mary introduced herself to Bernadette of Lourdes, she used these words: "I am the Immaculate Conception."  Since 1854 there have been several reaffirmations of the dogma of the Immaculate Conception by the Magisterium. 

The First Reading Genesis 3:9-15, 20 ~ God's Promise of the Redeemer-Messiah
9 After the man, Adam, had eaten of the tree, the LORD God called to the man and asked him, "Where are you?"  10 He answered, "I heard you in the garden; but I was afraid, because I was naked, so I hid myself."  11 Then he asked, "Who told you that you were naked?  You have eaten, then, from the tree of which I had forbidden you to eat!"  12 The man replied, "The woman whom you put here with me, she gave me fruit from the tree, and so I ate it."  13 The Lord God then asked the woman, "Why did you do such a thing?"  The woman answered, "The serpent tricked me into it, so I ate it."
14 Then the LORD God said to the serpent: "Because you have done this, you shall be banned from all the animals and from all the wild creatures; on your belly shall you crawl, and dirt shall you eat all the days of your life.  15 I will put enmity between you and the woman, and between your offspring [seed] and hers [her seed]; he will strike at your head while you strike at his heel."
20 The man called his wife Eve, because she became the mother of all the living.
[..] = literal Hebrew, IBHE, vol. I, pages 7-8.

We are told in Genesis 3:8 that the man and the woman were hiding among the trees in the garden sanctuary of Eden.  It is an ironic hiding place because the fruit bearing trees were intended to be a blessing, with the Tree of Life as symbolic archetype of those blessings.  The abuse of the eating the fruit of the one forbidden tree (Gen 2:16-17) has altered man's relationship with God.  From the beginning of Genesis 1:29, trees became a symbol of man's changing relationship with God, and in the final chapter of the Bible trees again become symbolic of God's healing power and His abundant blessings poured out upon the human race (Rev 22:2).

Adam and Eve are hiding because they are afraid of God.  Having lost the grace of their original holiness, sin has alienated them from God and has given them a distorted image of Him.  They no longer see God as a loving and protective Father; they now view Him as demanding, controlling, and jealous of His prerogatives. See CCC 397-99.

Notice that in verses 9-13 that God asks Adam and Eve a series of four questions:

  1. "Where are you?" (Gen 3:9)
  2. "Who told you that you were naked?" (Gen 3:11)
  3. "Have you been eating from the forbidden tree?" (Gen 3:11)
  4. "Why did you do that?" (Gen 3:13)

The first question, "Where are you?" is not a question of physical location.  God, being omniscient, knows exactly where Adam and Eve are hiding in the garden.  God's question is instead concerned with their spiritual condition: "Where are you in your relationship with Me?"  The second question establishes that they are no longer "clothed in grace" but have become "dis-graced" and are deprived of divine son-ship in the family of God.  The third calls for an acknowledgement of their sin, and the fourth question is an invitation to turn away from sin in order to turn back to holiness.  In asking the four questions, God the Father is calling His children to confession: Yahweh is asking Adam and Eve to examine their spiritual state, to acknowledge their sin, to confess their sin, and in expressing contrition and repentance to turn away from sin: 

  1. The first question called Adam and Eve to an examination of conscience.
  2. The second question was a call for an admission of sin.
  3. The third question was a call to bear the accountability for the sin committed.
  4. The fourth question was an invitation to repent their sin in an act of contrition and in turning away from sin to turn back to God.

These are the questions God is asking every sinner who comes into His presence in the Sacrament of Reconciliation.  In the Sacrament of Reconciliation, we come to God as fallen children seeking forgiveness for our sins from a just and loving Father (CCC 980; 1422-24; 1468-70).

12 The man replied, "The woman whom you put here with me, she gave me fruit from the tree, and so I ate it."  13 The Lord God then asked the woman, "Why did you do such a thing?"  The woman answered, "The serpent tricked me into it, so I ate it."
Adam blames "the woman."  In excusing his sin and implicating his wife, Adam has denied his bride, disavowing her "goodness" (she who was the last "good" thing created in Genesis 1:27-31), and he has blamed God for giving him the gift of the bride.  As companions they are no longer united; sin and guilt has turned them against each other. 

When God calls the woman to repentance and accountability, she blames the serpent.  But who bears the heavier burden of guilt, the man or the woman?  While it is true that man and woman are equal in God's affections and equally owe Him their obedience, their vocations are different.  The man's vocation in God's service was to guard and serve the Sanctuary (Gen 2:15).  The woman's vocation was to be the man's helper (Gen 2:20).  Adam gave the bride her identity as "woman" (Gen 2:23).  He had authority over her only in his duty to maintaining the sanctity of the garden Sanctuary; therefore, it is the man who is ultimately responsible.  The woman was "deceived (Gen 3:13), while Adam stood silent and willing (Gen 3:6).  In memory of this catastrophic event, the Law of Moses ruled that a husband was responsible for any vow his wife made to which he remained silent (Num 30:1-6).

Judgment and the consequences of the Fall
14 Then the LORD God said to the serpent: "Because you have done this, you shall be banned from all the animals and from all the wild creatures; on your belly shall you crawl, and dirt shall you eat all the days of your life.  15 I will put enmity between you and the woman, and between your offspring [seed] and hers [her seed]; he will strike at your head while you strike at his heel."

Three judgments are pronounced in Genesis 3:14-19, and the three defendants who face God's judgment are the woman, the man, and the serpent who is Satan in animal form (Rev 12:9). The animal form that Satan used is condemned to travel on its belly as a reminder throughout human history of the catastrophic event of the Fall of man and the form Satan took to accomplish his evil intent.  There will also be constant warfare between the "seed of the serpent" the "seed of the woman."

St. John the Apostle defines those who are the "seed of the serpent": Whoever sins belongs to the devil, because the devil has sinned from the beginning ... In this way, the children of God and the children of the devil are made plain; no one who fails to act in righteousness belongs to God, nor anyone who does not love his brother (1 John 3:8a, 10).  This title reflects God's judgment on sinners who stand in opposition to God and attempt to subvert the destiny of the people of God, "the seed of the woman," the faithful children of God, compose in the collective sense as the "seed of the woman," and in the individual sense, the One born of the "seed of the woman" from whom the gift of God's salvation would be extended to all mankind (1 Jn 3:8-10).

15 I will put enmity between you and the woman, and between your offspring [seed] and hers [her seed]; he will strike at your head while you strike at his heel."
The words "seed of the woman" in a collective sense refer to the promised line of the "holy seed," those men and women who, despite the difficulties imposed upon them through the curse of sin in the world, will remain faithful to knowing, loving, and serving Yahweh.  It will be these men and woman who will stand in opposition to the "seed of the Serpent/Satan," the men and woman who oppose the will of God.  But the "seed" of the woman can also be understood to refer to one individual who will battle Satan. 

In the Hebrew phrase he will strike at your head while you strike his heel, the pronouns are in the singular and not in the plural; and the pronoun can translated "he, she, or it."  In the Greek translation of the Old Testament (c. 250 BC), known as the Septuagint, the pronoun was translated as the masculine pronoun "he," while St. Jerome in his Latin Vulgate, translated the pronoun "she" as a reference to the Virgin Mary. 

The Hebrew scholars who translated this Hebrew text into Greek in the 3rd century BC acknowledged that this passage offered the first promise of a future Redeemer who will be wounded in His struggle with the Serpent: you will strike its heel, a Semitic expression for "do violence to, or to wound," but the promised Redeemer will crush the head of the Serpent: it [he] will strike [crush] your head; a Semitism for "to strike a mortal wound."  It is a visual image that begins the wonderful film "The Passion of the Christ" by director Mel Gibson.  The Church Fathers called Genesis 3:15 the Protoevangelium, which in Latin means "the first Gospel/Good news."  Genesis 3:15 is the first promise of the coming of the Messiah-Redeemer, born from a woman chosen by God. Genesis 3:15 is the proof that God was not willing to abandon mankind to the rule of sin and death.

20 The man called his wife Eve, because she became the mother of all the living.
Eve's naming reflects her destiny: Eve is to be the mother of all humans in the physical sense of motherhood.  The Virgin Mary also has a destiny to fulfill as the "mother of the living."  She is "the woman" who is the mother of all who come to her Son to receive the gift of eternal life (see CCC 489; Rev 12:17).

The Doctors and Fathers of the Church have always identified the promised woman in Genesis 3:15 as the Virgin Mary, who in her perfect obedience to the will of God untied the knot of disobedience of the virgin Eve and truly became the "mother of all the living."  The Virgin Mary is the new Eve as St. Irenaeus (martyred c. 200 AD) identified her: "As Eve was seduced by the word of a [fallen] angel to flee from God, having rebelled against his word, so Mary by the word of an angel received the glad tidings that she would bear God by obeying his word.  The former was seduced to disobey God [and so fell], but the latter was persuaded to obey God, so that the Virgin Mary might become the advocate of the virgin Eve.  As the human race was subjected to death through the act of a virgin, so was it saved by a virgin, and thus the disobedience of one virgin was precisely balanced by the obedience of another" (St. Irenaeus, Against Heresies, 5.19.1). 

Responsorial Psalm 98:1-4
The response is: "Sing to the Lord a new song, for he has done marvelous deeds."

1 Sing to the LORD a new song, for he has done wondrous deeds; his right hand has won victory for him, his holy arm.
Response:
2 The LORD has made his salvation known: in the sight of the nations he has revealed his justice.  3a He has remembered his kindness and his faithfulness toward the house of Israel.
Response:
3b All the ends of the earth have seen the salvation by our God.  4 Sing joyfully to the LORD, all you lands; break into song; sing praise.
Response:

This psalm encourages songs of praise in remembering God's mighty deeds in saving his people during the exodus and by bringing them back from the Babylonian exile.  God's "arm" is a reference to Exodus 15:16 and Isaiah 40:10; 51:5, 9; etc. and expresses God's personal, saving action for the sake of Israel.  God has acted in fidelity to His covenant with Israel (verse 3a) and all the nations of the earth have witnessed His mighty deeds in saving His covenant people (verse 3b).  Therefore, all the nations of the earth are called to offer up songs of joyful praise for the God of Israel (verse 4).

St. Augustine wrote: "O, my brothers and sons!  You are shoots of the universal Church, the holy seed of the eternal kingdom; you are those who have been remade and reborn in Christ!  Listen to me: 'Sing a new song to the Lord.'  You tell me that you are already singing.  Sing on, I say, sing on; I can hear you.  But try to make sure that your life does not contradict the words that your tongue sings ... You yourselves will give him praise if you lead holy lives" (Sermones, 34.3-6).

The Second Reading Ephesians 1:3-6, 11-12 ~ God's Plan of Salvation
3 Blessed be the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, who has blessed us in Christ with every spiritual blessing in the heavens, 4 as he chose us in him, before the foundation of the world, to be holy and without blemish before him.  In love 5 he destined us for adoption to himself through Jesus Christ, in accord with the favor of his will, 6 for the praise of the glory of his grace that he granted us in the beloved.
11 In him we were also chosen, destined in accord with the purpose of the One who accomplishes all things according to the intention of his will, 12 so that we might exist for the praise of his glory, we who first hoped in Christ.

St. Paul speaks of the spiritual blessings the Ephesians and all Christians have received through Christ (verse 3): the call to holiness and also the gift of divine adoption which establishes a unique spiritual relationship with God the Father through Christ the Son (verses 4-5). 

4 as he chose us in him, before the foundation of the world, to be holy and without blemish before him. 
Paul details each of the blessings contained in God's eternal plan.  The first is God's choice, "before the foundation of the world" of those chosen by divine election to be part of the Church, those called out of the world to be God's chosen people.  The Greek word that is translated "chose" in this verse is the same word used in the Greek translation of the Old Testament to refer to God's election of Israel.  The Church, the new people of God, is constituted by the assembly around Christ of those who have been chosen and called to holiness.  This implies that, although the Church was founded by Jesus at a certain point in history, its origin goes back to the eternal divine Plan for mankind's salvation. 

In love 5 he destined us for adoption to himself through Jesus Christ, in accord with the favor of his will, 6 for the praise of the glory of his grace that he granted us in the beloved.
But this does not means that only some of us have been predestined to be chosen by divine election while others are rejected.  All mankind is called to salvation and God is not willing that any should be lost (1 Tim 2:3-4), but mankind, in the exercise of free-will, either choses or rejects that divine destiny of love and holiness that God has planned for us "in the beloved" Christ Jesus.

11 In him we were also chosen, destined in accord with the purpose of the One who accomplishes all things according to the intention of his will, 12 so that we might exist for the praise of his glory, we who first hoped in Christ.
Paul contemplates the mystery of divine redemption brought by Christ for the Old and New people of God.  First he refers to the people of the Old Covenant, of which he himself is a member, which is why he uses the term "we" in verses 11-12.  Then, he addresses the Gentile Christians and refers to them as "you" in verse 13: In him you also, who have heard the word of truth, the gospel of your salvation, and have believed in him, were sealed with the promised Holy Spirit ....  The expectations of the Old Covenant people have been confirmed in Jesus, the promised Messiah.  Christ (Messiah) has brought the Kingdom of God and the messianic gifts, promised to Israel as an inheritance (see Mt 4:17; 12:28; Lk 4:16-22).  God's plan in selecting Israel was to form a people of his own (Ex 19:5) that would glorify him and proclaim to the Gentile nations its hope in a coming Redeemer-Messiah.  It is through Israel that God, with loving concern, made the preparation for the salvation of the whole human race through Jesus Christ and the new Israel composed of the Virgin Mary and the Jewish Apostles and disciples (Acts 1:14) whose mission was to carry the message of salvation out into the Gentile world (Mt 28:19-20)!  Their mission is now our inheritance and it is the duty of all of us called to divine election in the New Covenant to carry on the mission proclaiming God's message of salvation through Christ Jesus.

The Gospel of Luke 1:26-38 ~ The Announcement of the Birth of the Son of God
26The angel Gabriel was sent from God to a town of Galilee called Nazareth, 27 to a virgin betrothed to a man named Joseph, of the house of David, and the virgin's name was Mary.  28 And coming to her, he said, "Hail, full of grace!  The Lord is with you."  29 But she was greatly troubled at what was said and pondered what sort of greeting this might be.  30 Then the angel said to her, "Do not be afraid, Mary, for you have found favor with God.  31 Behold, you will conceive in your womb and bear a son, and you shall name him Jesus.  32 He will be great and will be called Son of the Most High, and the Lord God will give him the throne of David his father, 33 and he will rule over the house of Jacob forever, and of his kingdom there will be no end."  34 But Mary said to the angel, "How can this be, since I have no relations with a man?"  35 And the angel said to her in reply, "The Holy Spirit will come upon you, and the power of the Most High will overshadow you.  Therefore the child to be born will be called holy, the Son of God.  36 And behold, Elizabeth, your relative, has also conceived a son in her old age, and this is the sixth month for her who was called barren; 37 for nothing will be impossible for God."  38 Mary said, "Behold, I am the handmaid of the Lord.  May it be done to me according to your word."  Then the angel departed from her. 

The angel Gabriel's greeting to Mary is quite different from his greeting in his earlier visit to Zechariah in Luke 1:13.  Notice that Gabriel does not greet Zechariah with the same degree of respect and status as he did by giving Mary a title.  The greeting is also unusual in that He does not begin with the typical Semitic greeting of shalom (peace), but with chare which can be translated "hail" or "rejoice" and by announcing Mary's special status, often translated as "full of grace," but the more literal translation is "had been graced."  The angel's announcement in the literal Greek is: Chare, kecharitomene [kah-ray kay-kah-ree-toe-may-nay].  The angel addressed Mary by a title that was a past perfect participle of the Greek noun charis, meaning "grace": kecharitomene = "has been graced" (Fitzmyer, Gospel of Luke, page 345).  A past perfect participle indicates a condition that existed in the past and continues in the present.   Mary has been perfected in and continues in grace. To be "graced" in the past tense is to never having been lacking in grace; it is an indication of Mary's unique conception without original sin.

The most common rendering of this phrase is "full of grace."  It is a transliteration of Jerome's Latin Vulgate translation of the text.  However, while "full of grace" certainly describes Mary's condition, it is not what was being expressed in the Greek past perfect participle verb kecharitomene.  "Full of grace" in the Greek would be pleres chariots, as it is used for Christ in John 1:14 and for St. Stephen in Acts 6:8.  Mary's title, kecharitomene, indicates a state which is beyond filled.  In addressing Mary with this title, the angel is signifying that she possesses, and has always possessed, a plentitude of Divine grace (Keating, Catholicism and Fundamentalism, page 268-69).  That Mary was deeply disturbed by the angel's greeting (Lk 1:29) is evidence that someone of her humble station had received a greeting and was addressed by a title that was highly unusual.

The Fathers and Doctors of the Church have taught what Pope Pius IX expressed in the encyclical Ineffabilis Deus: ... "this singular, solemn and unheard-of greeting showed that all the divine graces reposed in the Mother of God and that she was adorned with all the gifts of the Holy Spirit.  This singular condition meant that Mary was never subject to the curse of original sin and that she was preserved from all sin.  The theologically explosive words of the Archangel Gabriel constitute one of the important text sources which reveal the dogma of Mary's Immaculate Conception" (Pius IX, Ineffabilis Deus; and Paul VI, Creed of the People of God).

The Catechism of the Church teaches:
CCC 411: "Mary benefited first of all and uniquely from Christ's victory over sin: she was preserved from all stain of original sin and by a special grace of God committed no sin of any kind during her whole earthly life."

CCC 490: "To become the mother of the Savior, Mary "was enriched by God with gifts appropriate to such a role."  The angel Gabriel at the moment of the annunciation salutes her as "full of grace."  In fact, in order for Mary to be able to give the free assent of her faith to the announcement of her vocation, it was necessary that she be wholly borne by God's grace."

CCC 491: "Through the centuries the Church has become even more aware that Mary, "full of grace" through God, was redeemed from the moment of her conception.  That is what the dogma of the Immaculate Conception confesses, as Pope Pius IX proclaimed in 1854: 'The most Blessed Virgin Mary was, from the first moment of her conception, by a singular grace and privilege of almighty God and by virtue of the merits of Jesus Christ, Savior of the human race, preserved immune from all stain of original sin.'" (quoting Pius IX, Ineffabilis Deus; also see CCC 492-493; 722).

The angel's greeting also identifies Mary as the fulfillment of "the daughter of Zion" in the writings of the prophets.  God's holy prophets taught the nation of Israel that it was her destiny to give birth to the promised Redeemer-Messiah, and now Mary, a daughter of Israel, was asked to fulfill that destiny.  The prophet Zephaniah wrote: Shout for joy, daughter of Zion [chaire thygater Sion], Israel, shout aloud!  Rejoice; exult with all your heart, daughter of Jerusalem!  15 Yahweh has repealed your sentence; he has turned your enemy away.  Yahweh is king among you; Israel, you have nothing more to fear.  16 When that Day comes, the message for Jerusalem will be: Zion, have no fear, do not let your hands fall limp. 17 Yahweh your God is there with you, the warrior-Savior (3:14-17 NJB). [..] = Greek translation.  Compare this passage with Luke 1:28-31.

Mary is the fulfillment of Israel's destiny to produce the Redeemer-Messiah first promised in Genesis 3:15 and in St. Luke's allusion to the "daughter of Zion" prophecy in Zephaniah 3:14-17Mary, in whom the Lord himself has just made his dwelling, is the daughter of Zion in person (CCC 2676)

Luke 1:28-31
(the angel Gabriel speaking)
Zephaniah 3:14-17 NJB
and LXX Greek
(God speaking)
"Chaire (Rejoice)"  Lk 1:28 Chaire ... thygater Sion "Rejoice daughter of Zion" Zeph 3:14
"the Lord is with you" Lk 1:28 "Yahweh is king among you" Zeph 3:15b
"Do not be afraid, Mary" Lk 1:30 "you have nothing more to fear... Zion have no fear" Zeph 3:15-16
"you will conceive in your womb" Lk 1:31 "Yahweh your God is there with you" Zeph 3:17
"Jesus" [Hebrew = Yahshua/Yehoshua = "Yahweh saves"] Lk 1:31 "the warrior-Savior" Zeph 3:17
Michal E. Hunt Copyright © 2012

31 Behold, you will conceive in your womb and bear a son, and you shall name him Jesus. 
The angel Gabriel told Mary to name her son "Jesus" (the English translation).  Both St. John the Baptist and Jesus were divinely named.  The ancients believed a name reflected the true essence of a person.  In the Greek text of the New Testament, Jesus' name is rendered Iesous, but this was not the name His family and friends called Him.  Jesus' Hebrew name was (in old Hebrew) Yah'shua; in Jesus' time His Aramaic name had evolved into Yehoshua.  An angel will tell Joseph the significance of the child's name in a dream: She will give birth to a son and you must name him Jesus, because he is the one who is to save his people from their sins (Mt 1:21).  The name Yahshua/Yehoshua was the name of the hero-conquer of the Promised Land, Moses' successor, Joshua.

The angel's statement to Joseph in Matthew 1:21 is a word play on Jesus' Hebrew name.  His name literally means "Yahweh saves" or "Yahweh is salvation" or even more literally, "I AM saves" or "I AM salvation" (the Divine Name is defined in Ex 3:14 as "I AM").  Jesus' Hebrew name is a theophoric name, a name compound that includes the name of a deity as part of the name.  In this case the Yah is a prefix for Yahweh: "Yah" is a short form that represents the Tetragrammaton, YHWH, the name God revealed to Moses and the "I AM" of the burning bush in Exodus 3:13-15.  The name "I AM saves" or Yahweh saves" signifies the very name of God present in the person of the second person of the Most Holy Trinity made man for the redemption from sin of all of mankind: there is no other name under heaven given among men by which we must be saved (Acts 4:12).

The Fathers of the Church saw a typological link between Jesus and Joshua, the Old Testament hero who bore the same name.  Biblical typology is defined as:  "A biblical person, thing, action, or event that foreshadows new truths, new actions, or new events.   In the Old Testament, Melchizedech and Jonah are types of Jesus Christ.  A likeness must exist between the type and the archetype, but the latter is always greater.  Both are independent of each other" (Catholic Dictionary, John A. Hardon, S.J.).

The Catechism teaches: "The Church, as early as apostolic times, and then constantly in her Tradition, has illuminated the unity of the divine plan in the two Testaments through typology, which discerns in God's works of the Old Covenant prefiguration's of what he accomplished ion the fullness of time in the person of his incarnate Son" (CCC 128)"Christians therefore read the Old Testament in the light of Christ crucified and risen.  Such typological reading discloses the inexhaustible content of the Old Testament; but it must not make us forget that the Old Testament retains its own intrinsic value as Revelation reaffirmed by our Lord himself.  Besides, the New Testament has to be read in the light of the Old.  Early Christian catechesis made constant use of the Old Testament.  As an old saying put it, the New Testament lies hidden in the Old and the Old Testament is unveiled in the New" (CCC 129, quoting St. Augustine). 

The Typology of Joshua and Jesus
Joshua
"Yahweh is salvation"
Jesus
"Yahweh is salvation"
Moses gave Hoshea the name Yahshua/Joshua. The angel Gabriel told Mary of Nazareth to name God's Son Yahshua/Jesus.
His name defined his mission as God's anointed. His name defined His mission as God's anointed.
Joshua's mission was to lead the children of Israel into the Promise Land of Canaan. Jesus' mission was to lead the children of God into the Promised Land of Heaven.
Joshua began his mission by crossing the Jordan River from the east to the west. Jesus began His mission after His baptism by crossing the Jordan River from the east to the west.
Joshua faithfully served God all of his life. Jesus faithfully served God the Father all of His earthly life and beyond.
Michal E. Hunt Copyright © 2012

Since God alone can offer the gift of salvation and the forgiveness of sin, it is God the eternal Son whose mission and destiny is to save humanity, just as His name suggests: "I AM saves"/ "I AM salvation". 

32 He will be great and will be called Son of the Most High, and the Lord God will give him the throne of David his father, 33 and he will rule over the house of Jacob forever, and of his kingdom there will be no end.
Both Mary and Joseph (Jesus' foster father) are descendants of the great King David (Lk 2:4).  The angel Gabriel told Mary her son's throne will last forever.  It is a prophecy that recalls the promise of the 5th kingdom in Daniel 2:44; it is the kingdom that shall never be destroyed or delivered up to another people; rather, it shall break in pieces all these kingdoms and put an end to them, and it shall stand forever.  There are also echoes of God's covenant promises to King David in 2 Samuel 7:9-16 that his throne will endure forever with a Davidic heir ruling over the kingdom (also see 2 Sam 23:5).  St. Luke is intentionally making a link between God's promise to David of an eternal covenant and the inauguration of that covenant promise in Jesus of Nazareth.

Jesus is the promised son of David's line who will rule forever.  He is the one greater than Moses promised in Deuteronomy 18:17-18 who has come to be the new Lawgiver and supreme prophet; and He is God's anointed who will lead His people across the great "river" of physical death into the true Promised Land of Heaven, as prefigured by Joshua who led the children of Israel across the Jordan River into the Promised Land of Canaan (Joshua 3:1-17).
Compare the promises the angel Gabriel made to Mary concerning Jesus' destiny in Luke 1:31-33 and the promises God made to King David in 2 Samuel 7:9-16:

Promises made to David
2 Samuel 7:9-16
Promises made to Mary in
Luke 1:31-33
And I will make you famous like the great ones of the earth [literal translation = I will make your name great] (2 Sam 7:9).   ... and you will name him Jesus.  He will be great (Lk 1:32).
The LORD reveals to you that he will establish a house for you and when your time comes and you rest with your ancestors [literally = your fathers]... (2 Sam 7:11-12).   The Lord will give him the throne of David his father (Lk 1:32).
I shall be a father to him and he a son to me. (2 Sam 7:14). ... and will be called Son of the Most High (Lk 1:32).
... I will raise up your heir after you, sprung from your loins, and I will make his kingdom firm [literally = the throne of your kingdom I shall establish forever] (2 Sam 7:13). Your house and your kingdom shall endure forever before me; your throne shall stand firm forever (2 Sam 7:16). ... he will rule over the house of Jacob forever, and of his kingdom there  will be no end (Lk 1:33).
Michal E Hunt © 2000

34 But Mary said to the angel, "How can this be, since I have no relations with a man?" 
Zechariah's question to the angel in 1:18 rendered a rebuke by the angel in 1:20, whereas Mary's question in 1:34 does not receive a negative response.  The difference is that Zechariah's question expressed unbelief (verse 20) and Mary's question concerns only her state of virginity.

35 And the angel said to her in reply, "The Holy Spirit will come upon you, and the power of the Most High will overshadow you.  Therefore the child to be born will be called holy, the Son of God. 
The angel uses the verb episkiazein  (overshadow) to explain Mary's Divine conception by the power of God the Holy Spirit.  It is the same verb used in the Greek Septuagint translation of Exodus 40:34 when God the Holy Spirit, in the visible form of the Glory Cloud, "overshadowed" the Tabernacle and the glory of Yahweh filled the Dwelling.  It is the same word that is used in the Transfiguration of the Christ (Mt 17:5 and Lk 9:34) when the voice of God was heard coming from a cloud which cast its shadow over those assembled on the mountain, and it is used in Acts 5:15 when St. Peter, filled with the Holy Spirit, approached the sick and his shadow was cast over them and they were healed.  The shadow of God is the gentlest manifestation of His Divine Presence.  How tenderly He overshadowed the Virgin Mary to change her destiny and all of human history!

In Exodus 40:34 God overshadowed the Sanctuary that held the Ark of the Covenant when His presence came to dwell on it (Ex 25:10, 21-22).  The Fathers of the Church saw a connection between the Virgin Mary and the Ark of the Covenant.  There were the three items that were placed in the Ark of the Covenant when it resided in the Holy of Holies of the Jerusalem Temple prior to the Babylonian conquest.  Compare Mary's womb with the description of the contents of the Ark of the Covenant from the Letter to the Hebrews: Behind the second veil was the tabernacle called the Holy of Holies, in which were the gold altar of incense and the Ark of the Covenant entirely covered with gold.  4 In it were the gold jar containing the manna, the staff of Aaron that had sprouted, and the tablets of the covenant (Heb 9:3-4).

Contents of the Ark of the Covenant according to Hebrews 9:4 Jesus Within Mary's Womb
The Ten Commandments = the word of God. (also see Ex 25:21; 40:20) Jesus: the Living Word of God. (Jn 1:1)
A pot of the manna, the bread from heaven. (also see Ex 16:33-34) Jesus: the Living Bread come down from heaven. (Jn 6:51)
Aaron's staff or branch that came back to life when green shoots budded as a sign of God's favor. (also see Num 17:23, 25) Jesus: "The Branch" of the House of David that died but came to life again.*
Michal E Hunt © 1998

*"the Branch," is a prophetic title for the Messiah in the books of the prophets.

The sacred box of the Ark of the Covenant, upon which God's presence rested, was last seen just prior to the destruction of Jerusalem in 587/6 BC when the prophet Jeremiah hid the Ark and the tent of the desert Sanctuary in a cave on Mt. Nebo (see 2 Mac 2:1-8).  The prophet Jeremiah foretold that the time would come when the shrine of the Ark of the Covenant would no longer be important to the covenant people:  They will in those days no longer say, "The Ark of the Covenant of the LORD!"  They will no longer think of it, or remember it, or miss it, or make another (Jer 3:16b). 

But will the faithful remnant of Israel, who will become the New Covenant Church of the people of God, be deprived of a sacred vessel associated with the very presence of God?  No! The Virgin Mary is the Ark of the New Covenant!  Her womb is the "dwelling of God ... with men" (see CCC 2676 and Rev 11:19-12:1-5; 21:3).

THE VIRGIN MARY IS THE ARK OF THE NEW COVENANT
The Arc of the Old Covenant Mary, The Arc of the New Covenant
God the Holy Spirit overshadowed and then indwelled the Ark.  The Ark became the dwelling place of the presence of God.
(Ex 40:34-35)
God the Holy Spirit overshadowed and then indwelled Mary.  At that time Mary's womb became the dwelling place of the presence of God.
(Lk 1:35)
The Ark contained the 10 Commandments (the word of God in stone), a pot of manna, and Aaron's rod that came back to life.
(Ex 25:16; Dt 10:2, 5; Heb 9:4)
The womb of the Virgin contained Jesus: the Word of God enfleshed, the living bread from heaven, "the Branch" (Messianic title) who would die but come back to life.
(Lk 1:35)
The Ark traveled to the hill country of Judah to rest in the house of Obed-edom.
(2 Sam 6:1-11)
Mary traveled to the hill country of Judah (Judea) to the home of Elizabeth.
(Lk 1:39)
Dressed in a priestly ephod, King David approached the Ark and danced and leapt for joy.
(2 Sam 6:14)
John the Baptist, son of a priest who would himself become a priest, leapt for joy in Elizabeth's womb at the approach of Mary.
(Lk 1:43)
David shouted for joy in the presence of God and the holy Ark.
(2 Sam 6:15)
Elizabeth gave a cry of joy in the presence of God within Mary's womb.
(Lk 1:42)
David asked How is it that the Ark of the Lord comes to me?
(2 Sam 6:9)
Elizabeth asked, Why is this granted unto me, that the mother of my Lord should come to me?
(Lk 1:43)
The Ark remained in the house of Obed-edom for 3 months.
(2 Sam 6:11)
Mary remained in the house of her cousin Elizabeth for 3 months.
(Lk 1:56)
The house of Obed-edom was blessed by the presence of the Ark.
(2 Sam 6:11)
The word "blessed" is used 3 times concerning Mary at Elizabeth's house.
(in Lk 1:39-45)
The Ark returned to its sanctuary and eventually ends up in Jerusalem where the presence and glory of God is revealed in the newly built Temple.
(2 Sam 6:12; 1 Kng 8:9-11)
Mary returned home from visiting Elizabeth and eventually comes to Jerusalem, where she presents God the Son in the Temple.
(Lk 1:56; 2:21-22)
God made Aaron's rod (which would be kept in the Ark) return to life and budded to prove he was the legitimate High Priest.
(Num 17:8)
God would resurrect His Son, who had become enfleshed in Mary's womb and born to bring salvation to all mankind, to prove He is the eternal High Priest.
(Heb 4:14)
When the Ark was outside the Holy of Holies [when it was being transported] it was to be covered with a blue veil.
(Num 4:4-6)
In Mary's appearances outside of heaven, visionaries testify that she wears a blue veil.
In Revelation 11:19 John sees the Ark of the Covenant in heaven; this is the last verse of chapter 11. In Revelation 12:1 John sees Mary in heaven.  It is the same vision Juan Diego saw of Mary in Mexico in 1531—the Woman clothed with the sun and standing on the moon.
Michal E Hunt, copyright 2002, revised 2012

Mary's unique role in salvation history is first mentioned in Genesis 3:15a where God curses the Serpent and promises that the Redeemer-Messiah who will crush the power of Satan will be born from a woman: I will put enmity between you and the woman, and between your offspring [seed] and hers [her seed]... (the First Reading).  This passage is referred to as the first Gospel message, or in Greek as the Protoevangelium.  The prophets of God narrowed this promise by identifying Israel as the people destined to bring forth the promised woman.  In addition, Mary's role as the Ark of the New Covenant is foretold in the prophecies of Jeremiah.  In chapter three he wrote concerning the sacred gold-covered box of the Ark of the Covenant that will disappear in the Babylonian conquest.  When the remnant of Israel returns after the exile, he tells the people a time will come when they no long look for the lost Ark: I shall give you shepherds after my own heart, who will pasture you wisely and discreetly.  Then, when you have increased and grown numerous in the country, Yahweh declares, no one will ever again say: The Ark of the Covenant of Yahweh!  It will not enter their minds, they will not remember it or miss it, nor will another one be made.  When that time comes, Jerusalem will be called: The Throne of Yahweh, and all the nations will converge on her, on Yahweh's name, on Jerusalem, and will no longer follow their own stubborn and wicked inclinations (Jer 3:15-17 NJB). 

In this prophecy "Jerusalem," as the center of true worship, becomes a symbolic name for the universal, new Covenant Church.  Then in chapter 31, a chapter in which Jeremiah prophesies the promise of a New Covenant (31:31), he wrote: The Lord has created a new thing upon the earth: the woman must encompass the man ... (Jer 31:22b; this is the literal Hebrew translation from Jeremiah's prophecy concerning promise of the New Covenant; see Jer 31:22-34).  The NAB ends this sentence with the words "with devotion" but those words are not found in either the Hebrew or Greek text.  This passage only makes sense if the creation of the first man and woman, in which the virgin Eve was encompassed and born from the body of the man Adam when God formed her from Adam's rib (Gen 2:21-22) is being contrasted with Jesus' being encompassed within and formed from the body of the Virgin Mary.  Normally a man child being born from the body of a woman is not "something new," but it is "something new" when that man child is the Son of God enfleshed within the womb of a virgin named Mary. 

The Catechism of the Catholic Church affirms Mary's role as the daughter of Zion and the Ark of the New Covenant: ... "Mary, in whom the Lord himself has just made his dwelling, is the daughter of Zion in person, the Ark of the Covenant, the place where the glory of the Lord dwells.  She is the dwelling of God...with men" (CCC 2676).  

The Holy Spirit will come upon you ...
It was God the Holy Spirit's role to prepare Mary for the Incarnation of the Messiah:

  1. The Holy Spirit prepared Mary in advance for the Incarnation of the Son by infusing her with His grace at the moment of her conception: "By the Holy Spirit's power and her faith, her virginity became uniquely fruitful" (CCC 723).
  2. In preparing Mary, the Holy Spirit was fulfilling God the Father's promise for the salvation of humanity: I shall put enmity between you and the woman .... (Gen 3:15).
  3. In Mary the Holy Spirit manifested God the Son enfleshed who then became the Son of God within the womb of a human mother who is both fruitful mother and ever virgin—Mary became the "burning bush" of a definitive Theophany.  Filled with the Holy Spirit she made the Word visible in the humility of His flesh through her DNA.

The result was twofold:

  1. Through the Virgin Mary, the Holy Spirit began to fulfill God's plan to bring humanity into communion with Christ.
  2. The Holy Spirit made Mary the Ark of the New Covenant as she bore the presence of God in her womb.  The "something new" promised by Jeremiah was a reversal of the old creation when the first virgin (Eve) came from the body of the first man (Adam).  In the beginning of the new creation, the second Adam (Jesus) came from the body of the second Eve (the Virgin Mary).  What made this event "new" is that this time the woman who held a man-child in her womb was a virgin, and the man-child was God enfleshed. 

36 And behold, Elizabeth, your relative, has also conceived a son in her old age, and this is the sixth month for her who was called barren; 37 for nothing will be impossible for God." 
As an example of the wondrous works of God, the angel tells Mary that her barren, elderly kinswoman has conceived a child and is now in "the sixth month."  It is the sixth month as the ancients counted without the concept of a zero place-value as we count; therefore, Elizabeth was five month pregnant.  The ancients recognized a ten month pregnancy (Wis 7:1-2).  For an elderly couple to conceive, or for a virgin to conceive was considered an impossibility, but Mary's God is the God of the impossible.

38 Mary said, "Behold, I am the handmaid of the Lord.  May it be done to me according to your word."  Then the angel departed from her. 
Mary humbly identified herself as God's female slave/servant.  The Greek word is doule, the feminine of doulos which means "male slave/servant."  In the ancient world, nearly all servants were slaves.  Mary completely submitted herself to the Lord and His sovereignty over her life with her words: "May it be done to me according to your word." And with the angel's mission accomplished, he departs. 

At the moment of Mary's free will response, Jesus was conceived by the power of God the Holy Spirit: "From the first formulations of her faith, the Church has confessed that Jesus was conceived solely by the power of the Holy Spirit in the womb of the Virgin Mary, affirming also the corporeal aspect of this event: Jesus was conceived "by the Holy Spirit without human seed."  The Fathers see in the virginal conception the sign that it truly was the Son of God who came in a humanity like our own ..." (CCC 496).

The Incarnation took place as God the Holy Spirit "overshadowed" (episkiazein) and enveloped the Virgin Mary.  This is the same Spirit of God who moved over the face of the water of Creation, bringing life (Gen 1:2-31).  Now He came bringing life to the Virgin's womb; the fruit her womb was the work of God the Holy Spirit (CCC 697).  This worthy Virgin, conceived without the stain of sin, became the new Tabernacle of God and the Ark of the New Covenant (see Rev 11:19-12:1; CCC 2676).  This is the mystery Catholics reflect upon every time they celebrate the Solemnity of the Immaculate Conception and pray the Angelus.

Mary's fiat (her unequivocal, free will "yes" to the will of God for her life) stands in sharp contrast to the free will response of another virgin at the dawn of human history who was faced with a decision that not only affected her life but the course of human history.  The contrast to the Virgin Mary in her obedience is the virgin Eve in her decision to rebel against God and His will for her life her free will decision to decide for herself what was good and what was evil in eating of the forbidden fruit (First Reading). 

The Fathers of the Church saw the Virgin Mary as the "new Eve" and Mary's "yes" as the undoing the disobedience brought about by the virgin Eve: "Thus, the knot of Eve's disobedience was loosed by the obedience of Mary.  What the virgin Eve had bound in unbelief, the Virgin Mary loosed through faith" (Irenaeus, Against Heresies, 3.22.4).  And the Church affirms her role as the "new Eve" from the time of the promise of Mary's role in salvation history prophesied in the Protoevangelium, "first good-news"/gospel, in Genesis 3:15:  "Furthermore many Fathers and Doctors of the Church have seen the woman announced in the Protoevangelium as Mary, the mother of Christ, the "new Eve..." (CCC 411, also see CCC 489, 726, 2618 and 2853).

Lord, let the words of the opening prayer for this Solemnity express our love and gratitude for Mary and Your great gift of grace that prepared her for the Incarnation and birth of Your divine Son: "Father, the image of the Virgin is found in the Church.  Mary had a faith that Your Spirit prepared and a love that never knew sin for You kept her sinless from the first moment of her conception.  Trace in our actions the lines of her love, in our hearts her readiness of faith.  Prepare once again a world for Your Son."  Amen.

Catechism References:
Genesis 3:9 (CCC 410, 2568), 3:9-10 (CCC 399); 3:11 (CCC 2515); 3:11-13 (CCC 400); 3:12 (CCC 1607); 3:13 (CCC 1736, 2568); 3:14-15 (CCC 2427); 3:15 (CCC 70, 410, 489); 3:20 (CCC 489)
Psalm 98 (CCC 709)
Ephesians 1:3-6 (CCC 381, 1077) 1:3 (CCC 492, 1671); 1:4-5(CCC 52, 257); 1:4 (CCC 492, 796, 865, 1426, 2807); 1:5-6 (CCC 294); 1:6 (CCC 1083)
Luke 1:26-38 (CCC 497, 706); 1:26-27 (CCC 488); 1:26 (CCC 332); 1:28-37 (CCC 494), 1:28 (CCC 490, 491); 1:31 (CCC 43, 2812); 1:32-33 (CCC 709); 1:32 (CCC 559); 1:34 (CCC 437, 484, 497, 505, 484, 486, 697); 1:37-38 (CCC 494); 1:37 (148, 269, 273, 276); 1:38 (CCC 64, 148, 510, 2617, 2677, 2827, 2856)

Michal E. Hunt Copyright © 2014