Agape Bible Study

COMPARISON BETWEEN THE PRIESTLY ORDERS OF
THE OLD TESTAMENT AND THE NEW TESTAMENT

What comparisons and contrasts can be made between the priestly order of the Levitical priesthood in the Sinai Covenant, the order of Jesus' eternal priesthood in the New Covenant, and the order of Melchizedek, if he is indeed Shem the firstborn righteous son of Noah, in the Noachide Covenant?

Priestly order of
Sinai Covenant
Priestly order of
Melchizedek as Shem
Priestly order of
Jesus Christ
Succession of priestly order based on genealogy [Exodus 29:29; Numbers 18:1-7; 21-22; Sirach 45:15] No priestly succession order listed in Scripture - the first priest in Scripture appointed by God [Genesis 14:18] Jesus is the eternal High Priest - the last and the only eternal priest appointed by God [Hebrews 7:26-8:2]
Priests were chosen from among men to be a compassionate advocate of Israel, God's covenant people [Exodus 28:1; 41-43; Hebrews 5:2-3]. Chosen from among men: [Genesis 9:26-27] to rule over his brothers and their descendants through the Noachide world Covenant [Genesis 9:8-10, 17] Chosen from among men to be a compassionate High Priest and advocate of the worldwide New Covenant people [Hebrews 4:15] of God [Matthew 28:19-20].
Tithes were paid to the Levitical priesthood from within the covenant family  [Numbers 18:20-24; Deuteronomy 14:28-29] Tithes were paid to the priest Melchizedek by Abram; if he is Shem the tithes are paid within the covenant family [Genesis 14:20] Tithes are paid to Christ our High Priest through His Church by the covenant family
Sacrifice and offerings were made by the covenant people through the priesthood [Leviticus 4:20, 31; 5:13; Numbers 15:25]. Abram paid a tithe of a tenth of his spoil from battle to Melchizedek  [Genesis 14:20] The covenant people bring Christ, our High Priest, offerings of bread and wine and He gives us, under the appearance of bread and wine, His Body, Blood, Soul, and Divinity [Matthew 26:26-29; 1 Corinthians 11:23-27]
In priestly role offered the peoples blessings, gifts, and sacrifices to God [Numbers 6:22-27] As God's priest he blessed Abram and brought bread and wine as a priestly gift [Genesis 14:18-19] Offers eternal blessings to the people and an eternal sacrifice to God on behalf of the covenant people [Hebrews 9:25-28; 10:10]
The priesthood of the Sinai Covenant was limited to priestly functions Melchizedek was both a High Priest and the King of Salem/Jerusalem [Genesis 14:18] Jesus is both the New Covenant High Priest and King of the heavenly Jerusalem
The priesthood of the Sinai Covenant served only the children of Israel through the Covenant God made which was exclusively limited to them [Exodus 19:5-6] . God's Covenant with Noah extended to all the earth.  If the covenant continued through Shem, his priesthood was over all peoples of the earth bound in one covenant family.  Melchizedek is titled in Genesis 14 as "the priest" of the Most High God.  There is no other priest. God's New Covenant is extended to include all nations [Matthew 28:19-20].  Jesus is the eternal high priest bringing the peoples of the earth back into one covenant family.  Jesus is the eternal priest of the New Covenant.  There is no other High Priest of the New Covenant
Michal Hunt, Copyright © Agape Bible Study. Permissions All Rights Reserved. 2007
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