Agape Bible Study

THE HARMONY OF THE GOSPELS: THE CRUCIFIXION



MATTHEW MARK LUKE JOHN
27:1-2 When morning came, [...] They had him bound and let him away to hand him over to Pilate, the governor. 15:1 First thing in the morning, the chief priests, together with the elders and scribes and the rest of the Sanhedrin, had their plan ready. They had Jesus bound and took him away and handed him over to Pilate. 23:1 The whole assembly then rose and they brought him before Pilate. 18:18 They then led Jesus from the house of Caiaphas to the Praetorium. It was now morning (dawn).
27:3-10 The death of Judas.      
27:11-25 Jesus' trial before Pilate. 15:2-15 Jesus' trial before Pilate. 23:2-7 Jesus' trial before Pilate. 18:29-40 Jesus' trial before Pilate. Vs. 29: They did not go into the Praetorium themselves to avoid becoming defiled and unable to eat the Passover. [note: that morning the personal peace offering, the Chagigah, was to be made at the Temple service at 9AM for the Feast of Unleavened Bread, which was part of the week long Feast-John calls the entire week long feast the "Passover" as does the 1st century historian, Josephus. If defiled by gentiles they also would not have been ritually clean, therefore, could not have made the offering and eaten it that day as required]
    23:6-12 Jesus is sent to Herod Agrippa who treats Jesus with contempt. He does not condemn Him but sends Him back to Pilate.  
27:26 Then he released Barabbas for them. After having Jesus scourged he handed him over to be crucified. 15:6-15 The crowd chooses Barabbas. 23:17-25 The crowd cries for Barabbas. 18:38-40 Pilate offers the crowd Barabbas.
27:27-31 Jesus is crowed with thorns, mocked and beaten. 15:16-20 Jesus is crowned with thorns, mocked, and beaten.   19:1-3 Jesus is scourged, mocked, and crowned with thorns.
      19:14 It was the Day of Preparation, about the sixth hour. Here is your king, said Pilate to the Jews. [...] so at that Pilate handed him over to them to be crucified. [is the 6th hour Roman time 6AM (spanning 6-7AM) or Jewish time 12 noon (12-1PM) or is the notation simply symbolic, 6 being the number of man? + See below
  15:21 Simon of Cyrene, the father of Alexander and Rufus, is forced to help Jesus carry His cross. 23:26 Simon of Cyrene is forced to help Jesus carry His cross.  
27:32-33 Jesus carries His cross to Golgotha. 15:22 Jesus carries His cross to Golgotha. 23:27-31 Jesus carries His cross to Golgotha and speaks to the women of Jerusalem. 19:17 Jesus carries His cross to Golgotha.
27:34-36 They gave him wine to drink mixed with gall, which he tasted but refused to drink. The soldiers cast lots for His clothing. 15:23-24 Jesus refuses wine mixed with myrrh. He is crucified and the soldiers cast lots for His clothing.   19:18 He was crucified with two others.
**see 3 rows below
  15:25 It was the third hour [9AM] when they crucified him. [note: at the Temple the gates have just opened for the morning celebration of the Feast of Unleavened bread and the offering of individual peace offerings by the faithful]    
27:37 They place the sign above His head this is Jesus king of the Jews. 15:26 The inscription giving the charge against him read, 'The King of the Jews...' 23:38 Above him there was an inscription: 'This is the King of the Jews.' 19:19-22 Pilate wrote out a notice [...] Jesus the Nazarene, King of the Jews in Hebrew, Latin and Greek
27:38 Then two bandits were crucified with him... 15:27 And they crucified two bandits with him... 23:33-38 Jesus is crucified with two criminals; He says Father, forgive them, they do not know what they are doing.; They cast lots for His clothes; the soldiers mock Him and offer Him vinegar. 19:23-24 Soldiers cast lots for His seamless garment **
27:39-43 The crucified Jesus is mocked by crowds. 15:29-32 The crucified Jesus is mocked by the crowds.    
27:44 Even the bandits who were crucified with him taunted him in the same way. 15:32 Even those who were crucified with him taunted him. 23:39-41 One of the criminals hanging there abused him: 'Are you not the Christ?' [...] But the other spoke up and rebuked him.  
    23:42-43 Then he said, 'Jesus, remember me when you come into your kingdom.' He answered him, 'In truth I tell you, today you will be with me in paradise.'  
      19:25 Near the cross of Jesus stood his mother and his mother's sister, Mary the wife of Clopas, and Mary of Magdala. Seeing his mother and the disciple whom he loved standing near her, Jesus said to his mother, 'Woman, this is your son.' Then to the disciple he said, 'This is your mother.' [it is difficult to know if this event took place before or after 12 noon]
27:45 From the 6th hour there was darkness over all the land until the 9th hour. 6th hour is noon Hebrew time and 9th hour is 3PM 15:33 When the 6th hour came there was darkness over the whole land until the 9th hour. Hebrew time: 12 noon and 3PM 23:44 It was now about the 6th hour and the sun's light failed, so that darkness came over the whole land until the 9th hour. Hebrew time: 12 noon and 3PM  
27:46 Jesus cried out in a loud voice, 'Eli, eli, lama sabachtani?' that is, 'My God, my God, why have you forsaken me?' ++ See below 15:34 At the 9th hour Jesus cried out in a loud voice, 'Eloi, eloi, lama sabachthani?' which means, 'My God, my God, why have you forsaken me?' ++ See below    
      19:28 After this, Jesus knew that everything had now been completed and so that the scripture should be completely fulfilled, he said, 'I am thirsty.'
27:48 a soldier gave Jesus vinegar on a reed to drink (sour vinegar is cheap red wine) 15:36 Someone ran and soaked a sponge in vinegar and putting it on a reed gave it to him to drink. (sour vinegar is cheap red wine)   19:29 A jar full of sour wine stood there; so putting a sponge soaked in wine on a hyssop stick, they held it up to his mouth.
    23:46 Jesus cried out in a loud voice saying, 'Father, into your hands I commit my spirit.' With these words he breathed his last. [difficult to know if this is the 6th or 7th statement] 19:30 After Jesus had taken the wine he said, 'It is fulfilled' and bowing his head he gave up his spirit. [it is difficult to know which statement came last John's or Luke's]
27:51 And suddenly, the veil of the Sanctuary was torn in two from top to bottom, the earth quaked, the rocks were split, the tombs opened and the bodies of many holy people rose from the dead. 15:37 And the Sanctuary veil was torn in two from top to bottom. 23:45 The veil of the Sanctuary was torn right down the middle.  
27:54 The centurion and other soldiers declare In truth this man was son of God. 15:39 The centurion confesses In truth this man was Son of God. 23:47-48 When the centurion saw what had taken place, he gave praise to God and said, 'Truly this was an upright man.'  
27:55-56 Jesus' women disciples were watching: Mary of Magdala, Mary the mother of James and Joseph, and the mother of John and James Zebedee. 15:40-41 Women present: Mary of Magdala, Mary who was the mother of James the younger and Joset, and Salome [the mother of John and James Zebedee]. 23:49 All his friends stood at a distance; so also did the women who had accompanied him from Galilee and saw all this happen.  
27:57 When it was evening, [afternoon our time] 15:42 'It was now evening (afternoon) and since it was Preparation Day - that is, the day before the Sabbath - 23:54 It was Preparation day and the Sabbath was beginning to grow light. [the word translated "light" in the Greek could indicate lamplight. In other words, sundown was coming and the Sabbath was about to begin]. 19:31-36 It was the Day of Preparation, and to avoid the bodies remaining on the cross during the Sabbath*-since that Sabbath was a day of special solemnity-the Jews asked Pilate to have the legs broken and the bodies taken away. Jesus' bones were not broken but a spear was thrust into His side and blood and water poured out. (*Saturday)
27:57-59 there came a rich man of Arimathaea, called Joseph, ... This man went to Pilate and asked for the body of Jesus. Then Pilate ordered it be handed over. Joseph ofArimathaea asks Pilate for Jesus' body and is given permission to bury Him. Joseph wrapped Jesus' body in a clean shroud. 15:43 ... there came Joseph of Arimathaea ... He receives permission from Pilate to take the body of Jesus and bury Him. Pilate is astonished that Jesus died so soon. 23:50-51 And now a member of the Council arrived, a good and upright man named Joseph. He had not consented to what the others had planned and carried out. He came from Arimathaea... 19:38-39 ...Joseph of Arimathaea, who was a disciple of Jesus-though a secret one.[...] asked Pilate to let him remove the body of Jesus. [...] Nicodemus came as well [...] and he brought a mixture of myrrh and aloes...
27:60-61 Jesus is buried in Joseph's own new tomb. A large stone is rolled across the entrance and Mary Magdala and the other Mary sit opposite the sepulchre. 15:46-47 Joseph wraps Jesus in the shroud he has brought with him. Jesus is buried in a rock hewn tomb and a stone is rolled in front. Mary of Magdala and Mary the mother of Joset took note of where he was laid. 23:52-56 He asks Pilate for Jesus' body, wraps Him in a shroud, and places Him in a new tomb. The women from the Galilee followed behind and took note of the tomb. Then they returned and prepared spices and ointments. And on the Sabbath day they rested, as the Law required. 19:41-42 They took the body of Jesus and bound it in linen cloths with the spices, following the Jewish burial custom. They buried Jesus in a new tomb. Since it was the Jewish Day of Preparation* and the tomb was nearby, they laid Jesus there. (*Friday, the day before the Sabbath)
27:62-66 At sundown, which is now the Jewish Sabbath, Saturday (Jewish day changes at sundown), the chief priests and the Pharisees go to Pilate and demand that Roman guards are placed on the tomb. They know of Jesus' claim that in three days He will be raised from the dead.      



+ for more information on the question of John's use of the 6th hour see the Agape Bible Study: The Gospel of John and the lesson on chapter 19.

++ Matthew's Gospel records the Hebrew form eli [ transliteration for elohim = god]. It is the original text of Psalms 22:1 of which Jesus' statement is a quotation. Mark gives the Aramaic form elahi which is transliterated eloi. Actually Matthew's form helps to explain the pun on the name of the Prophet Elijah in Mark 15:35.