THE HARMONY OF THE GOSPELS: THE CRUCIFIXION
|27:1-2 When it was morning... They bound him, led him away, and handed him over to Pilate, the governor.||15:1 As soon as morning came, the chief priests, with the elders and the scribes, that is the whole Sanhedrin, held a council. They bound Jesus, led away, and handed him over to Pilate.||23:1 Then the whole assembly of them arose and brought him before Pilate.||18:28 Then they brought Jesus from Caiaphas to the Praetorium. It was morning.|
|27:3-10 the death of Judas|
|27:11-25 Jesus' trial before Pilate||15:2-15 Jesus' trial before Pilate||23:2-7 Jesus' trial before Pilate||18:28b-40 Jesus' trial before Pilate: verse 28b And they themselves did not enter the Praetorium, in order not be defiled so they could eat the Passover. Passover = 8 days. The personal peace offering, the hagigah, was to be made at the Temple service at 9AM for the required Sacred Assembly. If ritually defiled by Gentiles, they would not have been ritually clean and could not have made the offering and eaten it that day as required.|
|23:6-12 Jesus is sent to Herod Agrippa who treats Him with contempt and sends Him back to Pilate|
|27:26 Then he released Barabbas to them, but after he had Jesus scourged, he handed him over to be crucified.||15:6-15 The crowd chooses Barabbas and Jesus is condemned to crucifixion.||23:17-25 The crowd cries for Barabbas and Jesus is condemned for crucifixion.||18:38-40 Three times Pilate finds Jesus "without guilt" (Jn 18:38; 19:4, 6). The crowd choses Barabbas and declares they have no king but Caesar. Jesus is condemned to crucifixion.|
|27:27-31 Jesus is crowed with thorns, mocked and beaten||15:16-20 Jesus is crowned with thorns, mocked, and beaten||19:1-3 Jesus is scourged, mocked, and crowned with thorns.|
|19:14 It was preparation day [Friday] for Passover [week] and it was about noon [literally the 6th hour]. The whole 8 days is called "Passover" in John. Here is the issue: is about the 6th hour Roman time = 6 AM (spanning 6-7AM) or Jewish time = 12 noon (12-1PM) or is the notation simply symbolic, 6 being the number of man? If it is Roman time this verse agrees with the other Gospels.
++ See below
|15:21 Simon of Cyrene, the father of Alexander and Rufus, is forced to help Jesus carry His cross.||23:26 Simon of Cyrene is forced to help Jesus carry His cross.|
|27:32-33 Jesus carries His cross to Golgotha.||15:22 Jesus carries His cross to Golgotha.||23:27-31 Jesus carries His cross to Golgotha and speaks to the women of Jerusalem.||19:17 Jesus carries His cross to Golgotha.|
|27:34-36 they gave Jesus wine to drink mixed with gall. But when he tasted it he refused to drink. The soldiers cast lots for His clothing.||15:23-24 Jesus refuses wine mixed with myrrh. He is crucified and the soldiers cast lots for His clothing.||19:18 He was crucified with two others.|
|15:25 It was the third hour [9 AM] when they crucified him. At the Temple the gates have just opened for the first Sacred Assembly of the Passover/Unleavened Bread and the offering of individual hagigah festival offerings by the faithful (Lev 23:7; Num 28:18).|
|27:37 they placed over his head the written charge against him: "This is Jesus, the King of the Jews."||15:26 The inscription of the charge against him read, "The King of the Jews."||23:38 Above him there was an inscription that read: "This is the King of the Jews."||19:19-22 Pilate wrote out a notice... "Jesus the Nazorean, the King of the Jews" in Hebrew, Latin and Greek.|
|27:38 Then revolutionaries were crucified with him...||15:27 With him they crucified two revolutionaries...||23:33-38 Jesus is crucified with two criminals; He says: "Father, forgive them, they do not know what they do." They cast lots for His clothes; the soldiers mock Him and offer Him vinegar.||19:23-24 The Roman soldiers cast lots for His seamless garment.|
|27:39-43 The crucified Jesus is mocked by crowds.||15:29-32 The crucified Jesus is mocked by the crowds.|
|27:44 Even the bandits who were crucified with him taunted him in the same way.||15:32 Even those who were crucified with him taunted him.||23:39-41 Now one of the criminals hanging there reviled Jesus, saying "Are you not the Messiah?" But the other spoke up and rebuked him.|
|23:42-43 Then he said, "Jesus, remember me when you come into your kingdom." He replied to him, "Amen I say to you, today you will be with me in paradise."|
|19:25 Standing by the cross of Jesus were his mother and his mother's sister, Mary the wife of Clopas, and Mary of Magdala. When Jesus saw his mother and the disciple whom he loved, Jesus said to his mother, "Woman, behold your son." Then to the disciple, "Behold your mother." Jesus saw His mother so this is prior to the total darkness.|
|27:45 From the 6th hour there was darkness over all the land until the 9th hour" [NJB literal Jewish time]; modern time = noon to 3 PM].||15:33 When the 6th hour came there was darkness over the whole land until the 9th hour [NJB]. Modern time = noon to 3 PM.||23:44 It was now about the 6th hour and the sun's light failed, so that darkness came over the whole land until the 9th hour [NJB]. From noon to 3 PM.|
|27:46 Jesus cried out in a loud voice, 'Eli, eli, lama sabachtani?' that is, 'My God, my God, why have you forsaken me?' [NJB]
|15:34 At the 9th [3 PM] hour Jesus cried out in a loud voice, 'Eloi, eloi, lama sabachthani?' which means, 'My God, my God, why have you forsaken me?' [NJB]
+ see below
|19:28 After this, aware that everything was now finished, in order that the Scripture might be fulfilled, Jesus said, "I thirst."|
|27:48 ...one of them ran to get a sponge; he soaked it in wine and putting it on a reed, gave it to him to drink.||15:36 One of them ran, soaked a sponge with wine, put on a reed, and gave it to him to drink ...||19:29 A jar full of sour wine stood there; so putting a sponge soaked in wine on a hyssop stick, they held it up to his mouth.|
|19:30 When Jesus had taken the wine he said, "It is finished" and bowing his head he gave up his spirit."
It is difficult to know if this is the 6th or 7th statement.
|27:50 But Jesus cried out again in a loud voice and gave up his spirit.
Note Jesus cried out "again."
|15:37 Jesus gave a loud cry and breathed his last.||23:46 Jesus cried out in a loud voice, "Father, into your hands I commit my spirit;" and when he had said this he breathed his last.
It is difficult to know if this is the 6th or 7th statement.
|27:51 And behold, the veil of the Sanctuary was torn in two from top to bottom. The earth quaked, the rocks were split, the tombs were opened and the bodies of many saints who had fallen asleep were raised.||15:38 The veil of the Sanctuary was torn in two from top to bottom.||23:45b Then veil of the Sanctuary was torn right down the middle.|
|27:54 The centurion and other men with him declare:
"Truly, this was son of God!"
|15:39 The centurion confesses:
"Truly this man was Son of God!"
|23:47-48 The centurion glorified God and said,
"This man was innocent beyond a doubt."
|27:55-56 The women disciples were watching: Mary of Magdala, Mary the mother of James and Joseph, and the mother of John and James Zebedee.||15:40-41 Women present: Mary of Magdala, Mary who was the mother of James the younger and Joset, and Salome (mother of John and James Zebedee).||23:49 But all his acquaintances stood at a distance, including the women who had followed him from Galilee and saw all these events.|
|27:57 When it was evening, (Friday afternoon our time—the Jewish day ended at sundown and the next day began).||15:42 When it was already evening (afternoon), since it was the day of preparation, the day before the Sabbath— It was Friday afternoon—the Sabbath began at sundown||23:54 It was day of preparation and the Sabbath was about to begin. The Sabbath (our Saturday) began at sundown.||19:31-36 Now since it was preparation day, in order that the bodies might not remain on the cross on the Sabbath, for the Sabbath day of that week was a solemn one, the Jews asked Pilate that their legs be broken and they be taken down. The soldiers broke the legs of the two criminals But when they came to Jesus and saw that he was already dead, they did not break his legs. Instead spear was thrust into His side and blood and water poured out.|
|27:57-59 Joseph of Arimathea asked Pilate for Jesus' body and was given permission to bury Him. Joseph wrapped Jesus' body in a clean shroud.||15:43 Joseph of Arimathea received permission from Pilate to take the body of Jesus and bury Him. Pilate was astonished that Jesus died so soon.||23:50-52 Joseph of Arimathea received permission to bury Jesus.||19:38-39 Joseph of Arimathea received permission to bury Jesus.|
|27:60-61 Jesus was buried in Joseph of Arimathea's own new tomb. A large stone was rolled across the entrance and Mary Magdala and the other Mary sat opposite the sepulcher.||15:46-47 Joseph wrapped Jesus in the shroud he brought with him. Jesus was buried in a rock hewn tomb and a stone was rolled in front. Mary of Magdala and Mary the mother of Joset noted where He was laid.||23:53-56 Joseph wrapped Him in a shroud, and placed Him in a new tomb. The women from the Galilee returned and prepared spices and perfumed oils. Then they rested on the Sabbath according to the commandment.||19:41-42 Now in the place where he had been crucified there was a garden, and in the garden a new tomb, in which no one had been buried. So they laid Jesus there because of the Jewish preparation day*; for the tomb was close by.
(*Friday, the day before the Sabbath).
|27:62-66 The next day, the one following the day of preparation ... At sundown, which is now the Jewish Sabbath (Saturday), the chief priests and the Pharisees go to Pilate and demand that Roman guards are placed on the tomb.|
|Michal E. Hunt Copyright © 2004, revised 2013|
All Scripture quotations are from the New American Bible unless noted NJB = New Jerusalem Bible which offered a more literal translation of the Greek text.
Bold = seven last sayings of Jesus from the Cross.
+ Matthew's Gospel records the Hebrew form eli [a transliteration for elohim = God]. It is the original text of Psalms 22:1 of which Jesus' statement is a quotation. Mark gives the Aramaic form elahi which is transliterated eloi. Actually Matthew's form helps to explain the pun on the name of the Prophet Elijah in Mark 15:35.
++ for more information on the question of John's use of the 6th hour see the Agape Bible Study: The Gospel of John, lesson chapter 19.