JEWISH TIME DIVISIONS IN THE 1ST CENTURY AD
Jesus replied, 'Are there not 12 hours in a day?'
Twelve-Hour Daylight Division:
The Hours of Prayer for the Old Covenant Church
The sacrificial system was at the heart of the Temple ritual. Public and private offerings were made daily. A public sacrifice was brought each morning and afternoon... The Jewish Book of Why, volume I, page 148
The hours are seasonal so the length of the daylight hours varied with the season of the year. The Jewish daytime hours began with dawn and ended with sundown, which began the next day. The Romans began their day with the first hour at midnight and counted 12 hours to high 12 noon and then 12 more hours from noon to the next midnight. We keep Roman time.
SCHEDULE OF THE HOURS OF PRAYER AND THE TEMPLE LITURGICAL SERVICE
|JEWISH TIME||ROMAN TIME|
After a the chief priest prepares the altar (Lev 1:7; 6:1-6/8-13; Mishnah: Tamid 1:2), the first male lamb of the Tamid sacrifice is brought out and tied to the altar at dawn (Mishnah: Tamid 3:2-3:3)
The twice daily communal sacrifice of the Tamid is the focus of religious life for the covenant people (Ex 29:38-42; Num 28:4-8). It is the only sacrifice other than the Feast of Fristfruits or the Sabbath that requires a single male lamb for the liturgical service. The Sabbath requires a male lamb in addition to the Tamid lamb for each of the two Sabbath services (Num 28:9-10)
The first Tamid lamb is sacrificed [Mishnah: Tamid 3:7; Edersheim, The Temple, chapter 7, p. 108]
The Temple gates open for the communal "Shacharit" (morning) prayer service (Acts 2:15) at the start of the 3rd hour. Individual morning prayer may be recited until noon (Mishnah 4:1)
The second lamb is brought out and tied to the altar at high noon. [Mishnah: Tamid 4:1]
The second Tamid lamb is given a drink from a gold cup and is tied to the altar until the time of sacrifice.
The second Tamid lamb is sacrificed [Antiquities of the Jews 14.4.3 (14:65); Philo Special Laws I, XXXV (169)]
3PM is the second hour of prayer [Acts 3:1; 10:9] "Minchah" (gift-offering); also called the hour of confession.
|Michal Hunt, Copyright © 1991 revised 2012 Agape Bible Study. Permissions All Rights Reserved.|
Notice that according to St. Mark, Jesus went to the cross at the third hour, which in Jewish time corresponds to our 9AM [Mark 15:25], and according to the Gospel accounts He gave up His life at the ninth hour, our 3PM.
The Jewish day began at sundown. The daytime was divided into 12 seasonal hours, but the day division of hours was focused on the schedule of the Tamid sacrifice.
Ma'ariv or evening prayer began at sundown [hours of prayer see Mishnah Berakhot]. According to the Jewish Book of Why, volume I the Ma'ariv is a later addition, instituted after the destruction of the Temple in AD 70. The Jewish Talmud records the late addition of the Ma'ariv service which is not connected with the sacrificial system. [Jewish Book of Why, volume I, page 148].
Twelve-hour night time division
(Roman night watch division was adopted after Roman occupation began in 63 BC)
THE NIGHT WATCH IN THE 1ST CENTURY AD
|Sundown to 9PM||First watch|
|9PM to midnight||Second watch|
|Midnight to 3AM||Third watch *|
|3AM to sun rise||Fourth watch|
Michal Hunt, Copyright © 1991, revised 2012 Agape Bible Study. Permissions All Rights Reserved.