The Levitical Sacrifices & Offerings of the Sinai Covenant

Ezekiel's prophecy of the Prince-Messiah of Israel:
"He must provide the sacrifice for sin, the oblation, the burnt offerings and the communion sacrifices to make expiation for the House of Israel." Ezekiel 45:17 All the Old Covenant sacrifices will be provided by the promised Davidic prince - Jesus of Nazareth.

Paul wrote to the Christian community at Colossus:
"Then never let anyone criticize you for what you eat or drink, or about observance of Annual Festivals, New Moons or Sabbaths. These are only a shadow of what was coming: the reality is the body of Christ."
Colossians 2:16

Name Scripture Purpose Consisted of: Who received Prophetic
Significance
1. Burnt offering
Olah (Heb.)
Sweet aroma

Voluntary sacrifices
Lev 1:3-17;
6:8-13
-to propitiate for sin in general (Lev 1:4)
-to signify complete dedication and consecration to God; therefor it is called the "whole burnt offering"
According to wealth:
-bull without blemish
(Lev 1:3-9)
-male sheep or goat without blemish
(Lev 1:10-13)
-Turtledoves or young pigeons
(Lev 1:14-17)
-God's portion = entirely burnt on altar of burnt offerings
(Lev 1:9)
God received everything except the skin
-Priest's portion = skin (Lev 7:8)
-offer's portion = none
-Signifies complete dedication of life to God:
1.On the part of Christ (Matt 26:39-44; Mk 14:36
Lk 22:42;
Phil 2:5-11)
2. On the part of the believer: (Rom 12:1,2;
Heb 13:15)
2. Communion or
Peace Sacrifice


Shelem or shalem
(Heb)
Latin = Pax

also called a
Thanksgiving Sacrifice

or in Hebrew a
Toda Sacrifice.

Latin = Eucharistia

Voluntary sacrifices
Lev 3:1-17
Lev 7:11-21;
Lev 7:28-34;
Lev 9:18-21
Lev 22:17-30;
Lev 21:21-30;
Num 15:7-12;
The peace offering expressed peace and fellowship between the offender and God = the restoration of communion. The Toda or thank offering was a sacrifice for being saved from death and being given a new life. According to wealth:
1. From the herd a male or female without blemish (Lev 3:1-5)
2.from the flock, a male or female without  blemish (Lev 3:6-11)
3. From the goats (Lev 3:12-17).
*minor imperfections sometimes permitted
(Lev 3:22-23)
 
-Grain made into a cake with oil and a wine libation accompanied the sacrifice
(Num 15:7-12) of every bull, lamb, or kid.
Victim is shared between God and the offerer. It was a sacred banquet in which most of the vital parts offered to God; choice portions to the priests and the rest eaten by offerer. Fatty portions burned on the altar of burnt offering for God's portion
(Lev 3:3-5).
Breast (wave offering) and right thigh (heave offering for the priests);
(Lev 7:30-34)
Remainder to be eaten in the court by the offerer and his family:
*the Toda, thank offering was to be eaten the same day
(Lev. 7:15)
This is the only offering in which the offerer shared and in which unleavened bread was eaten and wine is drunk. It is a sacrificial meal.
Foreshadows the peace and restoration of perfect communion that the believer has with God through the giving of Jesus Christ to us in the Eucharist (eucharistia means thanks and the early church also called this communion meal the pax or the peace) 1Cor 5:7-8; 10:16-18; 11:23-26; Col 1:20
3. Sin Sacrifices*
Hattat, (Heb.)

Non-sweet aroma;
Compulsory sacrifices
Lev 4:1-5:13;
Lev 6:17, 24-30;
Lev 9:7-17, 22-24;
Lev 10:16-20;
Lev 21:21-28
To atone for sins committed un-knowingly, especially where no restitution was possible.

*Note
Num 15:30, 31: The sin offering was of  no avail in cases of defiant rebellion against  God.
1. for high priest, a bull without blemish
(Lev 4:3-12)
2. for the congregation, a bull without blemish
(Lev 4:13-21)
3. for a ruler, a male goat without blemish
(Lev 4:22-26)
4. for a commoner, a female goat or female lamb, without blemish
(Lev 4:27-35)
5. in cases of poverty, two turtledoves or two young pigeons (one for a sin offering, the other for a burnt offering) could be substituted
(Lev 5:7-9)
6. in cases of extreme poverty, fine flour could be substituted
(Lev 6:11-13)
also note
Heb 9:22
God's portion = fatty portions burned on the altar of burnt offerings.
(Lev 4:8-10, 19, 26, 31, and 35)
When the sin offering was for a high priest or congregation, the remainder of the bull was to be burned outside the camp.
(Lev 4:11; 12, 20, 21)
When the sin offering was for a ruler or commoner, the remainder of the goat or lamb was to be eaten in the tabernacle court.
(Lev 6:26)
Offer's portion = none
Prefigures the fact that in His death:
1. Christ was made sin for us.
(2Cor 5:21)
2. Christ suffered outside the gates of Jerusalem.
Heb 13:11-13
4. Trespass
reparation Sacrifice

'asham (Heb)

Non-sweet aroma;

Compulsory sacrifices
Lev 5:14-6:7 To atone for sins committed unknowingly,
especially where restitution was possible.
If the offense were against the Lord (tithes, offerings, etc.),
a ram without blemish was to be brought; restitution was reckoned according to the priest's estimate of the value of the trespass plus one-fifth
(Lev 5:15, 16)

If the offense were against man,
a ram without blemish was to be brought;
restitution was reckoned according to the value plus one-fifth
(Lev 6:4-6)
Fatty portions to be burned on the altar of burnt offering for God
(Lev 7:3-5)
The remainder to be eaten in a holy place for the portion for priests'
Offerer's portion = none
Foreshadows the fact that Christ is also our trespass offering
(Col 2:13).
He has made reparation for our sins.
5. The Daily Burnt Sacrifice: The Standing or Perpetual Sacrifice

Heb= Tamyid
(Tamid) [pro. Tah-meed] a holocaust offering but the first & most important of all sacrifices known as the "Perpetual sacrifice."

Sweet aroma; compulsory sacrifices
Ex 29:38-42
Num 28:3-8

note: bayin ha ereb
literal translation = between the twilights = 12 noon
Lev 6:1-6;
Num 28:3-8;
Ez 46:13-15;
Dan 12:11

Other  References:
Mishnah: Tamid 1-4

Antiquities of the Jews, Josephus 14.4.3;

Special Laws I,
Philo, XXXV
Daily sin offering for the people. The first liturgical sacrifice of the Sinai Covenant. The whole day was structured around this sacrifice (see chart The Tamid) 2 yearling male lambs.
The first was tied to the altar at dawn (1st hr) & sacrificed 9am (3rd hr).

The second lamb was tied to the altar at noon (6th hr) & sacrificed at 3pm (9th hr Hebrew time)

Both lambs included libation of 4.5 ltrs fine flour mixed w/ 1.87 ltrs wine poured inside the sanctuary.

This sacrifice was doubled on the Sabbath.
This whole burnt offering was to be offered perpetually.
The Hebrew word Tamyid means "Standing" as in perpetual.
Christ is the Standing (Tamid) Sacrifice.

His passion occurred in the same time frame as the Daily Sacrifice:
At dawn He was condemned
(Mat 26:66-75),
at 9am He was crucified
(Mk 5:25-6),
at 12 the sun turned dark
(Mat 27:45),
at 3pm He died
(Mat 27:46-50).

John saw Jesus as the "standing" as in continual or perpetual [tamid in Hebrew]
Rev 5:6 = our Perpetual Sacrifice.
He is also our High Priest
(Heb 8:1-3)
6. Remembrance Sacrifices

For those feasts designated "sweet aroma" see (*) below;

compulsory sacrifices
Lev 23
Num 28:16-29:39
To relive the Exodus and Sinai experiences in every generation All 7 annual Holy Days ordained by God;
see the chart The 7 Annual Sacred Feasts of the Old Covenant
(there are other feasts that are national feasts not ordained by God).
God and the covenant people. All looked forward to Jesus the Mesiah; eating the Passover sacrifice at Unleavened Bread feast was first Eucharistic banquet: Do this in remeberanceof me (Lk 22:19).
7. New Moon sacrifices

"sweet aroma"compulsory sacrifices
Lev 23:24;
Num 28:11-15;
1Sam 20:5, 18, 24;
Is 1:13-14;
Ne 10:34;
Ez 46:6-7;
Amos 8:5;
Col 2:16
To begin a new month in the lunar calendar Whole burnt offering of:
- 2 young bulls with cereal offering of 3/10th of an ephah of fine flour mixed with oil
- 1 ram with cereal offering of 2/10th of fine flour mixed with oil
- 7 yearling lambs with cereal offering of 1/10th of fine flour mixed with oil
(All without blemish ) and in addition to the Tamid sacrifice a goat offered as a sacrifice for sin with its accompanying libation
Offered to Yahweh (completely consumed on the altar) in honor of the new month along with a goat as a sin sacrifice for the faith community Col 2:16
"...never let anyone criticize you for what you eat or drink, or about observance of annual festivals, New Moons or Sabbaths.  These are only a shadow of what was coming: the reality is the body of Christ."  All the Old Covenant blood sacrifices were a foreshadow of the perfect sacrifice of the Lamb of God (Jn 1:29;
Rev 5:6).
Michal Hunt, Copyright © 1995, revised 2006 Agape Bible Study. Permissions All Rights Reserved.

 

THE GRAIN OFFERINGS AND RED WINE LIBATIONS TO ACCOMPANY
SACRIFICES and GRAIN OFFERINGS MADE SEPARATELY

Name Scripture Purpose Consisted of: Who received Prophetic
Significance
Grain Offering

Minhah (Heb)

Sweet aroma

Voluntary

Red wine libation
Heb. = yayin
Lev 2:1-16
Lev 6:7-14
Lev 7:12-13
Num 15:1-21





Ex 29:40;
Lev 23:13;
Num 15:7-12
-Individual unbaked grain offerings had to be wheat flour without leaven upon which wine was poured and incense added. The priest added oil and burned the offering on the altar.

-Baked grain offerings with wheat flour in unleavened cakes mixed with oil unleavened wafers spread with oil.

-The grain offering accompanied all burnt offerings. It signified that true repentance had now reestablished communion with God.  Salt is added to every  cereal offering
(Lev 2:12)

-Wine libation accompanied Tamid sacrifice, Feast of Firstfruits, and Feast of New Moon sacrifices.
In a burnt offering for a Communion sacrifice 3/10th of a hin of wine must be included
Three Types of Grain offerings:

1. Fine flour mixed with oil and frankincense
(Lev 2:1-3)
2. Cakes made of fine flour mixed with oil and baked
(Lev 2:4-5)
3. Green heads of roasted grain mixed with oil and frankincense
(Lev 2:14,15)
-Memorial portion burned on the altar of burnt offering as God's portion.
(Lev 2:2, 9, 16)
-Remainder to be eaten in the court of the Tabernacle by the Priests
(Lev 2:3,10; 6:16-18; 7:14, 15)
-None for offerer's portion
Signifies the perfect humanity  of Christ:
1. Absence of leaven typifies the sinlessness of Christ
(Heb 4:15; 1 John 3:5)
2. The presence of oil is emblematic of the Holy Spirit
(Lk 4:18; 1 John 2:20, 27)
3. Wine = "blood of the grape" points to the Blood of the Lamb of God
Michal Hunt, Copyright © 1995, revised 2006 Agape Bible Study. Permissions All Rights Reserved.

*The designation "sweet aroma" was attached to an offering that was totally consumed by the altar fire, representing the complete surrender of the offered to the will of God in his life. The Hebrew designation translated "sweet aroma" or "pleasing smell" is first mentioned in Noah's voluntary whole burnt sacrifice in Gen 8:21 when Noah offered sacrifices on God's altar immediately after disembarking from the Ark after the great Flood. The designation is also found in Ex 29:18 in the investiture ritual for the priesthood of Aaron; in Ex 29:41 for the offering of the whole burnt offering of the Tamid lambs. Also see Lev 1:9, 13, 17, 8:21, 28, 23:18; Num 28:6 (Tamid), 28:8 (Tamid); whole burnt offerings for the annual remembrance feasts in Num 28:27 (Feast of Weeks/Pentecost), Num 29:2 (Feast of Trumpets), Num 29:8 (Feast of Atonement whole), Num 29:13 (Feast of Shelters/Tabernacles); and Num 29:36 (Sacred Assembly at the end of Feast of Tabernacles). All of these citations are connected to a whole burnt offering symbolizing the complete surrender of the offer/offers. The designation "sweet aroma" is also found in the offering of well-being in Ex 29:25 (investiture of priests); Lev 3:5, 16; 17:6; Num 15:3; 18:17; in the grain offering consumed on the altar fire in Lev 2:2, 9, 12; 6:8, 14; 23:13; and the wine libation that was poured out at the altar in Num 15:7, 10, 13, 14; 28:24; 29:6.

Note: There is no single word for "sin" in the Old or New Testament. The O.T. Hebrew words for sin are: hatta't = to miss the mark, awon = iniquity (damage to sinner only), asam = sin liability in harming another but not malicious, segagah = straying off the path, pasa = mortal sin, open rebellion against God. New Testament Greek words for sin: harasitia = venial (unintentional sin), and harartema = mortal sin (intentional disobedience to the Law of God.

After the sin of the Golden Calf (Ex 32) the sacrifices are expanded from the 2 daily lambs of the Tamid sacrifice to include 6 other classes sacrifices, with an addition of two Tamid more lambs on the Sabbath. The 3 Pilgrim Feasts are expanded to the observance of 7 annual holy days of obligation, but only 3 feasts require attendance at God's holy altar: Unleavened Bread, Feast of Weeks, and Feast of Tabernacles.

Prophetic visions given to the prophet Ezekiel by Yahweh:
"...in divine visions, he carried me away to the land of Israel and put me down on a very high mountain, on the south of which there seemed to be built a city. He took me to it, and there I saw a man whose appearance was like brass. He had a flax cord and a measuring rod in his hand... The man said to me, 'Son of man, look carefully, listen closely and pay attention to everything I show you, since you have been brought here only for me to show it to you. Tell the House of Israel everything that you see.' "
Prophecy of the future Prince: "This must form your expiation - declares the Lord Yahweh. Let all the people of the country be subject to this due for the Prince of Israel. The Prince must make himself responsible for providing the burnt offerings, the oblation and the libations for feasts, New Moons, Sabbaths and all the solemn festivals of the House of Israel. He must provide the sacrifice for sin, the oblation, the burnt offerings and the communion sacrifices to make expiation for the House of Israel." Ezekiel 40:2-4 & 45:15b-17 - All the sacrifices will be provided by the future Prince who is Jesus of Nazareth, the promised Davidic heir (Ez 34:23-24).

Michal Hunt, Copyright © 1995, revised 2006 Agape Bible Study. Permissions All Rights Reserved.

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